and monitored by one of their 'seniors'. The priest has denied the charges and claims he has always fought against the mafia.). She remembered our conversation outside Cara di Mineo. Italy has an estimated 1.5 million unregistered workers, who were particularly vulnerable to labor trafficking. Save the Children Italy reported 263 minors were victims of labor exploitation and approximately 2,210 minors were victims of child trafficking, mostly for sexual exploitation, in five of the country’s 20 regions. During the investigation, an undercover police officer was tipped off by one of the aid agencies working in Cara di Mineo, and picked Joy up on the road leading through the citrus groves. Most of them had come to Italy to work in hair salons, and all had contact numbers to call. Roadmap to Hell: Sex Drugs and Guns on the Mafia Coast by Barbie Latza Nadeau is published by Oneworld. Italian and Nigerian gangs: A deadly alliance An uneasy partnership between Italian and Nigerian gangs has led to a boom in human trafficking and the drugs trade. ROME --Precious survived a trip across North Africa and two sinking boats before making it to Italy, ... Organization for Migration's 2017 report on human trafficking. Realising she was being put to work as a prostitute, she had refused to leave the camp. Official complicity in human trafficking crimes occurs at the local level. Italy has an estimated 1.5 million unregistered workers, who were particularly vulnerable to labor trafficking. Indeed Italy is one of the principal entry points for the drugs smuggled into Europe for different reasons: ... Cuba (Avana) and Domenican Republic. 228 of 11 August 2003 entitled “Measures against trafficking in persons” and on Article 18 of Legislative Decree 286 of 1998 (Immigration law). I had tried, I thought, but obviously not hard enough. It was at that roundabout that I met Joy. In 2016, anti-mafia police conducted an operation named “Skin Trade”, which uncovered one of the networks set up to get women out of the Cara di Mineo camp and on to the streets. The Africans were not welcome to integrate with the Italians and instead set up a peripheral society where they lived outside the law, often squatting in illegally built or unfinished buildings. Italy figured in last two sub-routes as one of the main country in the illicit drug trafficking. Another appeal is under way. “It was the kind of food we usually give to pigs.” The local mafia had set up shell companies that were being paid to provide services including feeding the migrants. There was a baseball diamond and American football field, along with a non-denominational house of worship that doubled as a cinema. The fight against trafficking in human beings is one of Italy’s key priorities within the framework of the Italian Presidency of the Council of the European Union. “We have received very specific reports of recruitment activities and radicalisation,” he told the paper. Local farmers come in pick-up trucks, looking for i neri (“the blacks”), choosing the biggest and strongest for casual labour, harvesting tomatoes and citrus fruits. Cara di Mineo, like the Sant’Anna asylum centre in Isola di Capo Rizzuto in Calabria, and others on the mainland, has also become a hunting ground for traffickers. Many of the trafficked Nigerian women end up in Castel Volturno, outside Naples, known as the most lawless part of Italy. their home country and would be substituted temporarily by their Its illegal dealings in drug and firearms trafficking, prostitution, waste disposal, racketeering and counterfeiting secure the organisation billions of euros annually. The boulevards and tree-lined streets of the compound were meant to replicate a US suburb, complete with a recreation centre, supermarket, American-style steakhouse and a coffee and pastry shop. “It’s like a small city,” he said. The oldest of six children, Joy (not her real name) told me she had left her family in a small village in Edo state in Nigeria at the age of 15, and gone to work for a wealthy woman who owned a beauty salon in Benin City. ast year, Catania’s chief prosecutor, Carmelo Zuccaro, tried to make it illegal for NGO charity ships to rescue migrants at sea and bring them to Italian shores. It is rare to meet a trafficked woman who has not been faced with this choice. They started using traffickers to trick them into coming, eventually expanding the trade further north to Italy’s larger cities and into Europe. Many of the Nigerian women and girls rescued from the smugglers’ boats by charities or coastguard vessels are from small villages around Benin City. “They probably had no choice,” she said as she looked down the road toward the thick citrus groves that hid the coming traffic. Once Joy was taken off the bus in the reception centre with the other passengers, she was given a bed in a villa with 10 Nigerian women around her age. Prosecutor Nicola Gratteri said detectives had filmed appalling conditions inside the centre. The boulevards and tree-lined streets of the compound were meant to replicate a US suburb, complete with a recreation centre, supermarket, American-style steakhouse and a coffee and pastry shop. She is joining Prince Charles on his European tour. In March 2017, in an interview with the rightwing newspaper Il Giornale, he revealed that the state had started investigations into prisons and refugee camps where extremists were recruiting migrants awaiting word on their asylum requests. Torn-up shreds of those papers are a common sight in the ditches beside the road near the centre. More than 400 villas were built to accommodate the standard family of five. He was accused of collusion with the mafia, and of using funds intended for the care of migrants and refugees for personal gain. Before they’ve even started work, they will owe around €60,000 (£53,000). Most migrants live in another former military residential development, now dilapidated and controlled by the Camorra, who charge rent to squatters and trafficked women. There are other incidentals, including room, board, clothing and rent for the space on the pavement from which they solicit sex. At harvest times, men leave Cara di Mineo in the early morning and gather along a triangle of dirt off the state highway. They were rarely hired for farm work, so many had no choice but to prostitute themselves. The alarm about radicalisation overshadowed the fact that criminal groups are recruiting migrants from the camps for forced or low-paid labour. A UN expert on human trafficking has called on Italy to do more to confront the problem. Joy, a young Nigerian woman, was standing in the street outside the sprawling, overcrowded Cara di Mineo reception centre for asylum seekers in central Sicily, waiting for someone to pick her up when I met her. When I asked her what she thought would happen when she was picked up, she said she was sure she would be taken to a beauty salon owned by her maman’s sister, where she would be given a job as a hair braider, as she had been in Benin City. A shelter for trafficked women who have entered a protection programme run by the Italian state. She said she was 18, but looked much younger. The minimum age for consensual sex is 14 or 13 if the partner is under the age of 18 and the age gap is less than three years. By law, each migrant awaiting asylum is given an electronic card to check in and out of the centre when making outings. A Catholic charity had given Italian phone cards to all those who had been rescued, which they could use to call home. Some centres take on more migrants than they can manage, in order to earn extra revenue, so refugees end up living in dangerously overcrowded conditions. prostitution racket in the Vicaria Mercato area of the Campania The camp’s director, Sebastiano Maccarrone, admitted in a series of media interviews in early 2016 that it was virtually impossible to protect the inhabitants. Joy asked how she would know who was picking her up. One of those young women was Joy. Victims originate primarily from Nigeria and other African countries, China, and Eastern Europe. fellow countrymen in the event of running ino trouble with The Italian legislation to combat trafficking in human beings is essentially based on Law no. Indeed, the Camorra-ravaged suburbs of Secondigliano and Scampia in northern Naples have the dubious claim of being Europe's largest open-air drug market, supplying addicts from across the country with cheap, low-grade heroin and cocaine. Photograph: Elena Perlino/Rex/Shutterstock, ‘Migrants are more profitable than drugs’: how the mafia infiltrated Italy’s asylum system. The vehicle had come from Bulgaria and arrived in Italy via Greece. Six of the suspects are Albanian nationals and one Italian. (ANSA) - Naples, June 30 - Police on Tuesday arrested seven The Albanian suspects allegedly maintained close ties with Administrators in some centres are accused of taking kickbacks for selling personal details of asylum seekers who have escaped to smaller centres (some of whom don’t exist). The group, which prosecutors defined as a mafia-style association, had siphoned off millions of euros intended to fund public services. Because of the church’s influence over migrant care, contraception was not being distributed, and few migrants have the means to source their own. Instead of working for a hairdresser, she fell into the trap set by traffickers who lure women into slavery and prostitution. “They’re more profitable than drugs.” Buzzi and his associates were sentenced to decades in prison after a trial that ended in 2017, although their sentences were reduced on appeal. The buildings are overrun by cockroaches and rats that feed off festering piles of garbage, while mangy, flea-infested dogs duck in and out of holes in the razor-wire fence. Why didn’t you tell me what was going to happen?”. Then, women are free to go, but some end up becoming madams themselves, either convinced there are lucrative profits to be made, or as an act of revenge: to visit on others what they had to endure. The theory is that if a woman realises that the penalty for refusing to prostitute herself is gang rape, she will likely agree that roadside sex is a better alternative. In 2017, anti-mafia police arrested 68 people, including the local parish priest, in the Calabrian town of Isola di Capo Rizzuto, where one of the country’s largest migrant and refugee reception centres has been in operation for more than a decade. She believed she would be working in a hair salon. human trafficking A growing number of Chinese immigrants are being trafficked into Italy to work in inhumane conditions at the country’s garment factories or … Many of those trafficked for sex slavery are assured by their “sponsors” that they will take care of getting the necessary documents for them once they leave the centres. African migrants first started coming to the area in large numbers in the 1980s, to work in the tomato fields for low wages. Most are single and travelling alone. Many of the trafficked Nigerian women end up in Castel Volturno, outside Naples, known as the most lawless part of Italy. The Italian government has criminalised human trafficking in line with international definition in article 601 of its penal code, as amended by Legislative Decree No. The most importa... nt thing you can do for victims of human trafficking is learn the indicators and report suspected trafficking when you see it. They are then forced into sex work under the threat of violence, most of them – like Joy – terrorised by a curse that binds them into slavery. The women were brought to Italy from Albania, often Since 2015, the country has been coping with an overwhelming flow of migrants, a significant portion of whom are vulnerable to trafficking. Every year at Cara di Mineo, on average, 10 migrants die while waiting for their asylum requests to be heard, killed in fights or dying from untreated medical conditions, according to Amnesty International and other aid groups that operate in the centre. It was built for officers stationed at the Sigonella naval air base about 40km away. A Catholic charity had given Italian phone cards to all those who had been rescued, which they could use to call home. Indeed Italy is one of the principal entry points for the drugs smuggled into Europe for different reasons: ... Cuba (Avana) and Domenican Republic. Murder rates are the highest in the country, and locals call it Beirut, or the Bronx. Many of the trafficked Nigerian women end up in Castel Volturno, outside Naples, known as the most lawless part of Italy. “There was never enough food, and we managed to film the food that was on offer,” he said. I caught up with Joy by email thanks to a local anti-trafficking advocate in Sicily who took an interest in her case and acted as a liaison with the court. These penalties are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with penalties prescribed for forcible sexual assault. Joy still had her jacket with the phone number sewn inside. But Verzera says he found that migrants who had been gone for months were kept on the list for financial support. He convinced her to help them catch the people who had trafficked her, and her evidence became key to the operation’s success. “Trafficking in Persons”… mean[s] the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another perso… “Naples has a very high (rate) of human trafficking,” said Teig. The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute estimates there are between 8,000 and 10,000 Nigerian women and girls living in Italy who have been forced into prostitution. ... “This involves many cities including Turin, Milan, Genoa, Rome, Naples and Palermo and thousands of Nigerian and Italian people. The playground equipment scattered throughout the compound is rusty and in disrepair, now mostly used by men in their 20s who sit on the swings and lie on the slides, whiling away the long hours. (Foreign Correspondent: Louie Eroglu) “How could I have been so trusting? A seafront sprawl 30 miles (48 km) north of Naples, the ramshackle town began life in the Etruscan age - before the Roman empire - and was a popular summer playground for Neapolitans during the 1970s. In total, we reached almost 2,000,000 people in these locations. She said she was 18, but looked much younger. The Camorra in Italy. A few weeks later, she was told she was moving to Italy, where she would work for her maman’s sister. The farmers call them ragazzo or “boy”, demanding they turn around or show them how straight their backs are. The woman who answered the phone told her to apply for political asylum using a fake name and birthdate, and never to give the phone number she had just called to anyone. In December 2016, four Nigerian asylum seekers were arrested in Cara di Mineo, accused of drugging and raping a female resident. The woman who answered the phone told her to apply for political asylum using a fake name and birthdate, and never to give the phone number she had just called to anyone. But often, before they can obtain legal status, they are claimed by the criminal underworld. regional capital. Trafficked women working as prostitutes near Turin. By the 1990s, women started arriving in greater numbers. After the incident, Francesco Verzera, a prosecutor with jurisdiction over Cara di Mineo, appealed to the authorities to close down the camp, stating that overcrowding and lack of supervision is creating a dangerous criminal environment. The car she was waiting for was never going to take her to a hairdressing job. By Barbie Latza Nadeau, Last modified on Tue 28 Apr 2020 14.37 EDT. The villas are falling apart, and the migrants are left to do what they can to take care of maintenance with scant tools. It can take five years or more of sexual slavery to pay the debts. Among those arrested were Nigerian women who worked with what were termed “connection men” inside the camp. The stench of sewage permeates the grounds, attracting rodents and insects. Victims originate primarily from Nigeria and other African countries, China, and Eastern Europe, and include ethnic Roma. The authorities concluded that this was due to an increase in prostitution, along with a lack of birth control options. Accommodation blocks are often so overcrowded that people have to sleep on the floor or in tents. She wrote again. She was wearing a faded denim jacket over a crisp white T-shirt and tight jeans, and six or seven strings of colourful beads were wrapped around her neck. Police on Tuesday arrested seven people allegedly involved in human trafficking between Albania and Italy and exploiting prostitution in Naples. It is suspected that they were running an international operation that involved trafficking young girls from Nigeria and forcing them into prostitution in Italy. Those turned down are easy bait for criminal gangs working inside the camps, who get paid for providing mafia groups with illegal cheap labour, running drugs and arms or working in the many industries those groups have infiltrated. The Ministry of Interior is in the plan… I had no idea how to help her. Italy is one of the main destination countries for trafficked men, women and children. How could I have been so dumb?”. As we spoke, a dark car came into view and she took a couple of steps away from me to make sure whoever was driving saw her, and saw that she was alone. The operation leading to the arrests was carried out by officials from the Guardia di Finanza (GdF), which is the Italian law enforcement agency responsible for dealing with financial crimes and smuggling. Italian justice. I wished her good luck and gave her my phone number, which she saved in her phone before walking through the sliding metal gate back inside the centre. On Friday (November 13), eight migrants of non-EU origin including three minors and one woman were discovered inside the refrigerated compartment of a lorry that was transiting through Italy's southern Campania region near Naples. Experts believe the overall number of trafficking victims in Italy is increasing due to the dramatic rise in migrants and asylum seekers arriving by boat escaping war and oppressive political, social, or economic conditions. Most of the villas house 15 to 20 people, sleeping in bunk beds or on mattresses on floors. Many of the migrants on the official roster had long since disappeared, even though the centre, under the direction of Maccarrone, was still reimbursed €35 (£31) a day for them. The road that connects the Italian capital of Rome to Naples was first built almost 2,000 years ago. Others are provided with false personal details that they are told to use for their applications. “You will know,” the man told her. The UN's International Organisation for Migration estimates 80 per cent of the Nigerian women and girls arriving by sea are likely to be victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation in Italy. Trafficked women who disappear to work as sex slaves have little chance of being rescued, because their absence causes no concern. One woman handed out shoes and flip-flops, and another gave them bruised yellow apples from a large metal tub. About 70km from the coast in central Sicily, it is a hellish place where the vast majority of African migrants who arrive by sea start their lengthy journey to asylum. A number of people were arrested in … It is a degrading display, made worse by the fact that they are paid a mere fraction of what Italians would be paid for the same work. In 2011, the US navy gave up its $8.5m (£6m) annual lease and returned the property to Pizzarotti. Joy was number 323. There were six other girls who worked for the woman, whom Joy said they called their maman, meaning “mother”. Joy’s bus headed to the Cara di Mineo migrant camp, one of the biggest in Europe. Italy prohibits all forms of trafficking in persons through its 2003 Measures Against Trafficking in Persons law, which prescribes penalties of eight to 20 years’ imprisonment. and Italy and exploiting prostitution in Naples. She had since come to suspect that her parents had sold her to raise money for their younger children. Always quick to exploit new opportunities, the mafia is making vast profits off the backs of migrants. Inhabitants dry their laundry next to signs protesting against the Italian government, condemning the bad food and the time it takes to process asylum requests. Sergio Nazzaro, a local journalist, says it is the Camorra’s graveyard. However, the Camorra is interested in human trafficking especially with regard to the prostitution of young girls from Central Africa.” To those living in poverty, unable to get work or integrate with the community they have found themselves in, selling ones soul to organised crime may seem like a … The centre was, on paper, far over capacity, and received extra funds to help with the overload when, in reality, they were taking care of far fewer people than the documents stated. If they fail, they are given a slip of paper that says they have five days to leave the country, but no means to do so. The group had also infiltrated asylum centres across the country, buying and selling names and details of migrants who had long disappeared, in order to keep the per-person state funding coming. I asked her if she knew that a lot of girls like her ended up as sex workers. I was also selfishly scared that if I intervened, I might get caught up in some sort of retaliation act, that someone might harm me or my children for taking one of the madam’s precious “assets” off the streets. The approaching car didn’t slow down, so Joy came back over to me and carried on our conversation. “The crimes continue to get more violent, and the growing disregard for life is a clear sign of a deteriorating situation.”. This cycle has continued for more than a decade, but in 2016, the number of Nigerian women who arrived by smugglers’ boats was 60% higher than the previous year. The bar is now the medical centre, and the restaurant a canteen where migrants pick up rations of rice and bananas. • Follow the Long Read on Twitter at @gdnlongread, or sign up to the long read weekly email here. he complex that houses Cara di Mineo was built in 2005 by the Pizzarotti Company of Parma, which is still the primary contractor for US defence logistics in Italy. It was late summer 2016, and the weather was still hot. Ghosts of the centre’s former life remain. A gold chain hung from her left wrist, a gift from her mother. The compound is guarded by military police who check the asylum seekers in and out, and keep out anyone who isn’t registered. Were they in on it?” There are still many unanswered questions, but many lessons learned. Officers then detained a 33-year-old woman and a 21-year-old man on suspicion of being involved in human trafficking and sexual exploitation. 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